Code Stresses - CAESAR II - Installation & Upgrade

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Installation & Upgrade

CAESAR II supports many United States and international codes. This section contains the stress values used by the software.

US Code Stresses

International Code Stresses


Use the nomenclature definitions that follow unless a code section specifically provides a different definition.

Am - Cross-sectional metal area in the pipe.

B1 - Primary stress index (component specific)

B2 - Primary stress index (component specific)

Di - Internal diameter

Dm - Mean diameter

Do - Outer diameter

dT - Change in temperature

E - Elastic modulus

f - Cyclic stress range reduction factor

F1 - Hoop stress design factor

Fax - Axial force

FAC - A unitless factor used for a number of purposes depending on the piping code. For more information, see the CAESAR II User's Guide.

i - Stress intensification factor

ii - In-plane stress intensification factor

io - Out-of-plane stress intensification factor

ia - Axial stress intensification factor

it -Torsional stress intensification factor

I - Sustained moment index

Ii - Sustained in-plane moment index

Io - Sustained out-of-plane moment index

Ia - Sustained axial force index

It - Sustained torsional moment index

k - Occasional load factor

Ma - Resultant moment due to weight and other sustained loadings

Mb - Resultant moment due to occasional loadings

Mc - Range of resultant moments due to expansion and displacement loadings

Mi - In-plane moment

Mo - Out-of-plane moment

Pi - Internal pressure

Pe - External pressure

R - Radius of pipe or bend

Sa - Axial stress

Sb - Bending stress

Sc - Cold allowable stress (ambient or reference temperature)

Se - Expansion stress

Seq - Equivalent combined stress (von Mises or Tresca)

Sh - Hot allowable stress

Shoop - Hoop stress

Sl or SL - Longitudinal stress

Slp - Longitudinal pressure stress

Ss - Tangential shear stress

St - Torsion stress

SU - Ultimate tensile strength

Sy - Yield stress

T - Temperature derating factor

tn - Nominal wall thickness

Z - Pipe section modulus

Ze - Effective section modulus for branch

a - Coefficient of thermal expansion

n - Poisson’s ratio