Use the following guidelines when modeling skewed restraints in CAESAR II:

You can use direction vectors or direction cosines to define the line of action of the restraint. If direction vectors are used, CAESAR II converts them to direction cosines.

Direction cosines can be quickly checked in the graphics processor.

Any translational axis can be used in the restraint description. The redefinition of the axis does not affect any other restraint description for the element.

Use caution when entering skewed direction input data. A common mistake is to specify an axial instead of transverse restraint when modeling a skewed guide. Plotted section views of the restrained nodes are a useful check of the skewed direction specification.

The sense of the direction or cosine unit vector is unimportant. In the definition of doubleacting restraints, the direction vector and cosines are used only to define the restraint line of action and are not concerned with a direction along that line.

You can use a simple rule for finding perpendicular, skewed, or direction vectors. The restraint is to be perpendicular to the pipe. If the pipe has skewed delta dimensions DX and DZ, the perpendicular restraint directions vector is (DX, 0, DZ).